兒童醫療輔導的背景和歷史 History and Background of Child Life in Hong Kong

兒童醫療輔導的背景和歷史
兒童在醫院治療期間心理方面的需要,在50年代開始在歐美國家備受關注,並陸續開展了以遊戲為基礎的項目發展及相關人員培訓及研究。Child Life 一詞最先於美國在1962年的一份報告中使用,及後Child Life Specialist 在北美漸漸發展成一個輔助醫療專業,其主要目的為減少並預防病童治療期間承受不必要的負面後果,以回應兒科病童及其家庭成員的社會心理需要。在英國則繼續沿用 Hospital Play Specialist此職銜。兩個系統嘅基本理念相似,數十年間則分別按照兩地的情況發展成不一樣的訓練和專業考核標準。
時至今日Child Life 是全球最廣泛被參照的專業模式 ,在美國﹑加拿大﹑澳洲發展成熟。Certified Child Life Specialist (CCLS) 是目前全球最廣泛地採用的專業認證,全球有超過5000名CCLS。英國及新西蘭仍以Hospital Play Specialist(或Health Play Specialist) 為職銜,兩地未有一個統一的系統。
香港於90年代起分別有兩間志願團體為住院病童提供醫院遊戲服務,其後分別派員前往美國和英國接受專業培訓。選擇英國模式發展的團體及後在香港開辦本地化課程。選擇美國模式發展的團體繼續以海外訓練模式發展,於2010年開始有第一位CCLS,期後陸續有職員完成專業考核,亦有自行取得資歷的人員回港以私人執業模式投身此行業。直至2015年,第一個Child Life 為名的項目易名誕生,中文採用已於中國台灣使用的翻譯—兒童醫療輔導。
基於兒童醫療輔導是最被廣泛參照的模式,北美亦建立了非常清晰的訓練模式及專業認證系統。本會選擇以兒童醫療輔導命名,亦對Hospital Play持開放態度,希望以專業的角度去推廣交流,以促進此專業的發展為最終目標。
Background and history of child life
In the 50’s, there were growing concerns about the psychosocial needs of hospitalized children, play-based support programmes, personnel training and research projects had been developed. The term “child life” first appeared in a report about needs of hospitalized children in 1962 in the US. Child Life has been developed into a professional allied health disciplines in the following decades to respond to the psychosocial needs of children in hospitals, helping sick children coped with stresses brought by their illness and treatments. Hospital Play was the title used in UK. Child Life and Hospital Play were originated from the very similar rationale but have been developed into two independent disciplines with different training requirements and clinical standards according to the different social contexts.
Nowadays, child life is the most widely recognized title used in this discipline. There are well developed model and training framework in US, Canada and Australia. Certified Child Life Specialist (CCLS) is the most widely accepted professional credential with over 5000 CCLSs over the world. UK and New Zealand are still using the title of Hospital Play Specialist(Health Play Specialist), they are not a unify system so far.
Hospital Play was started in hospitals in HK in the early 90’s by two NGOs. They then sent their staff for overseas training, one organization chose the US model while another chose the UK model. The organization chose the UK model has also developed localized training programme in HK. While the organization chose the US model continued its staff training through overseas opportunities. The first CCLS in HK completed her certification in 2010, and more and more CCLSs finished the certification process in the following years. There was also individual joining the discipline after finishing her study abroad. First Child Life programme was found in HK when the organization using the US model renamed its programme into Child Life in 2015.
Our association adopted the name “Child Life” based on the wider worldwide recognition of child life. Hospital Play is not excluded from our association, ongoing conversation and exchange of professional knowledge are encouraged for the purpose of enhancing professional growth of the discipline.